Try adding the command “debugger” in your source code where you’d like a break point to occur. That oughta stop it in its tracks! (A kludge, but maybe better than nothing.)
Like you, I’m also having major problems debugging in Chrome (and FireFox) since moving to Vue 2/Quasar 0.8+/Webpack 2 (<— One of those is the culprit!)
Under V1, I used to be able to click on the error message in console and link straight to the mapped (i.e. readable) source-code, and step through it. Now, unless the error occurs during the build or I manually insert “debugger” into the source code, I’m usually taken to the Vue internal function that “rehtydrates” the component into JS. Have tinkered & looked for a solution for ever with no luck, so if you find it please let us know!!
Also, I had some partial success by selecting “Break on uncaught expection” from Chrome debugger, although it only seems to work sporadically. sigh